Find the latest bookmaker offers available across all uk gambling sites Read the reviews and compare sites to quickly discover the perfect account for you.

FAQs Vertrel™

Frequently Asked Questions about Vertrel™ solvents:


What are Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Vertrel™ specialty fluids are a family of hydrofluorocarbon-based specialty fluids introduced as an ideal replacement for ozone-depleting specialty fluids such as CFC-113, 1-1-1-trichloroethane, HCFC-141b, HCFC-123, and HCFC-225, as well as high global warming specialty fluids such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs). The unique properties of Vertrel™ specialty fluids include:
  • Low heat of vaporization
  • Low surface tension
  • Low viscosity
  • Nonflammability
  • Chemical and thermal stability
  • Low toxicity
  • Ease of recovery by distillation; compatible with a broad range of materials, metals, plastics, and elastomers
Vertrel™ specialty fluids are used in a wide array of applications such as carrier fluids, specialty fluids, aerosols, drying, heat transfer, and defluxing. Our specialty fluids come with the assurance of consistent performance, quality, safety, and technical service and support.
What is an azeotrope? Are Vertrel™ specialty fluids considered azeotropes?
An azeotrope is best described as a constant boiling blend. To be an azeotrope, the material has to be a mixture or a blend of at least two different elements or compounds. For example, neat HFC-43-10mee is not an azeotrope because there's nothing else in it but molecules of HFC-43-10mee. The boiling point of HFC-43-10mee is about 50°C/130°F. Now mix HFC-43-10mee with a small but precise amount of methanol and the boiling temperature for the mixture drops to 48°C/118°F. This is very odd and unexpected. The two chemicals are still separate and distinct in the mixture, but they are working together in a useful manner to lower their combined boiling point. When we boil some of this mixture in a beaker the two constituents will boil off at the same rate. Let's suppose the mixture we are testing is 97% HFC-43-10mee and 3% alcohol. If we measured the composition of the fumes coming off the boiling liquid, we will notice that the mixture of fumes also is at the same 97:3 ratio. When we condense the fumes by cooling, the condensed liquid will have the same 97:3 ratio. The constant ratio means we have created an azeotrope. There is a bit of magic to making azeotropes. Not all liquids form azeotropes because the density, boiling point, and surface tension. All has to be exactly right. Azeotropes have several advantages:
  • Deliver the benefits of a mixture with the convenient handling and storage of a single compound
  • Provide the ability to mix flammable and nonflammable ingredients to produce a stable nonflammable mixture - this is a big boost for safety!
  • Permit the "tweaking" of a blend to obtain unique physical properties, which makes the blends useful across a broad range of applications
Several Vertrel™ products are azeotropes, and that's important because it lowers your costs, boosts cleaning effectiveness, and enhances worker safety.
What are the advantages of using Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Safety: Most of the Vertrel™ specialty fluids are nonflammable. This makes cleaning processes simpler, safer and more reliable. Please refer to the Material Safety Data Sheets for specific safety information. Easy Operation: Manufacturing personnel deal with one azeotropic solvent instead of a solvating agent and rinse agent. A single azeotropic solvent eliminates the need to monitor the ratio of solvating agent and rinse agent. Easy Monitoring: Monitoring the contamination level in Vertrel™ specialty fluids is much easier than determining the soil level in a solvating agent. Most manufacturing companies do not have the laboratory capability to determine the soil level in the solvating agent so they prematurely discard the solvating agent, to preserve quality production. This discarding of the solvating agent results in greater solvent consumption. Higher Soil-Loading Capability: Azeotropic specialty fluids have higher soil-loading capability, which allows the solvent to be used longer and thus reduces solvent purchases. Faster Cleaning: Azeotropic specialty fluids clean much faster. This can reduce the cleaning cycle time by as much as 75%, increase productivity, and eliminate production bottlenecks involving the cleaning operation. Minimal Odor: Vertrel™ specialty fluids have minimal odor, which minimizes workplace odor, employee complaints, and residual odor left behind on the cleaned parts. Lower Constant Temperatures: Vertrel™ solvent cleaning systems operate at lower constant temperatures, which provides greater compatibility and reduces energy costs. In co-solvent systems, the operating temperature can fluctuate dramatically as the ratio between the solvating agent and rinse agent changes. Less Expensive: Both solvent and energy costs are lower with Vertrel™ solvent systems. Azeotropic specialty fluids are normally less expensive than the combined costs of two specialty fluids used in a co-solvent process. Less azeotropic solvent is consumed because it has higher soil loading capability and is reclaimable by distillation. Significant solvent loss occurs in a co-solvent process when the agent is added to an operating system because of the two vastly different boiling points. Versatile Equipment Use: Single-sump vapor degreasers can be used with Vertrel™ specialty fluids; boil-sump immersion is optional.
What is the shelf life of Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Vertrel™ specialty fluids have an unlimited shelf life. As long as the drum or pail is not opened, and the material is stored in a cool, dry place out of direct sunlight, the material will remain in excellent condition for years.
How do I know if Vertrel™ specialty fluids are for me?
First, contact a Vertrel™ distributor or Chemours directly. We will discuss your application with you and, if needed, test to see if your part is compatible with Vertrel™ and if it can be cleaned.

Application-Specific FAQs

Can Vertrel™ specialty fluids be used to deposit coatings and lubricants?
The same characteristics that make Vertrel™ specialty fluids an excellent cleaner—heavy, nonflammable and highly soluble with many types of contamination—also permit Vertrel™ specialty fluids to carry coatings and lubricants and deposit those coatings precisely where they are required. The coating or lubricant must either be soluble in Vertrel™ specialty fluids or have a specific gravity similar to Vertrel™ specialty fluids. The most common coatings are silicone lubricants and PTFE powdered coatings. Vertrel™ specialty fluids carry the coating and deposit it on the surface being lubricated during a dipping process. The primary benefit of using Vertrel™ specialty fluids in this application is the speed or throughput of this solvent-based process. Most users also feel the process delivers a superior coating, which improves product quality. The surfaces do not have to be flat for this coating process to work; irregular shapes and blind vias can be coated as easily as a disk drive platter.
Can Vertrel™ specialty fluids dissolve and deposit silicone lubricants?
Yes, Vertrel™ specialty fluids can easily dissolve silicone lubricants and residues. Vertrel™ specialty fluids are an excellent choice when silicone lubricants are required, such as in many medical applications. Vertrel™ specialty fluids can carry up to 8% silicone by weight, which makes it far more cost effective than the other choices. Many customers are switching from HCFC-141b carrying agents and finding that Vertrel™ specialty fluids work very well in this application.
Can PTFE lubricants mix with Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Yes. Many PTFE "dry lubricants" and coatings use Vertrel™ specialty fluids as the carrying agent. These are normally applied in a dipping process. These processes work particularly well with Vertrel™ specialty fluids because Vertrel™ has some capability to dissolve PTFE and the densities of the material are similar to each other. Coatings produced with Vertrel™ specialty fluids will have superior lubricity to coatings produced with HCFC-141b carrying agents because of the intrinsically closer match chemically between the solvent and the PTFE lubricant. The end result is a PTFE coating that is exceptionally smooth, free of runs and drips, and highly cost-effective. The handling of the dipping process is simplified as well with Vertrel™ specialty fluids because the material stays in suspension better than with the lighter carrying agents. This improves quality and reduces rework while simplifying the need to constantly agitate the dipping solution.
Why are Vertrel™ specialty fluids used in electronics applications?
  • Cleans lead-free and no-clean fluxes
  • Excellent solvency power (high KB value); superior cleaning performance
  • Low surface tension; penetrates tight spaces
  • Fast, residue-free drying; increases productivity
  • Compatible with a broad range of substrates and contaminants
  • Cost effective; lowers your per-part cleaning costs
  • Superior technical support available to aid process design/troubleshooting
Why are Vertrel™ specialty fluids used in metal cleaning applications?
  • Excellent solvency power (high KB value); superior cleaning performance
  • Fast, residue-free drying; increases productivity
  • Compatible with a broad range of substrates and contaminants
  • Cost effective; lowers your per-part cleaning costs
  • Specific grades available for high-volume, spot-free drying process
  • Superior technical support available to aid process design/troubleshooting
Why are Vertrel™ specialty fluids used in medical applications?
  • Fast, residue-free drying
  • Compatible with a broad range of substrates and contaminants
  • Excellent carrier for silicone deposition or other thin films
  • Good solvency strength
  • Special grades available to be used for silicone tube swelling
  • Cost effective; lowers your per-part cleaning costs
  • Superior technical support available to aid process design/troubleshooting

Environment-Specific FAQs

What are the environmental properties of Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Vertrel™ specialty fluids are all completely ozone-safe. They are the ideal replacements for ozone-depleting specialty fluids such as CFC-113, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, HCFC-141b, nPB, and HCFC-225. Vertrel™ specialty fluids are currently not a major contributor to global warming; however, it is always possible that future regulations related to global warming may negatively impact Vertrel™ specialty fluids. Chemours continues to invest in the development of next-generation products with significantly lower global warming potential. Vertrel™ specialty fluids can be used to replace high global warming potential specialty fluids such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Most Vertrel™ specialty fluids are blends of different ingredients. Some of the additives are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are photoreactive, which means they can contribute to low-altitude smog. Some of the ingredients are organic but for various reasons have been rated as VOC Exempt (usually because they are not photoreactive and because they have a very short atmospheric life).
Can Vertrel™ specialty fluids be recycled or reclaimed?
Please refer to the Material Safety Data Sheets and discuss disposal options with a knowledgeable Chemours representative or distributor prior to disposal or recovery.

FAQs about Vapor Degreaser Operations

How much electricity is used when cleaning with Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Water cleaning uses a great deal of electricity while solvent cleaning uses almost none. For customers in locations where electricity is expensive, vapor degreasing is the most energy efficient and affordable way to clean. There are four design features in every water cleaning machine that make the systems very energy-intensive: the numerous, high-pressure pumps that move the water around the machine, the energy it takes to heat the cleaning water, the energy it takes to dry the parts, and the energy it takes to treat and purify the water for reuse or disposal. All of this additional work is required because of the inherent characteristics of water. Basically, water has high surface tension and a high latent heat of evaporation. When cleaning with Vertrel™ specialty fluids:
  • There is no water to heat, which saves electricity. Instead the solvent is heated to only about 40°C/100°F, which takes very little electricity.
  • There are no big pumps required to push the solvent around, which saves electricity; the solvent moves by gravity.
  • There are no blowers or "air knives" on vapor degreasers, which saves electricity; the solvent is trapped inside the machine and the components come out dry. (In fact, even motorized fans in fume hoods are not recommended near vapor degreasers because it increases solvent losses.)
  • There is no waste treatment facility required, which saves electricity, because the degreaser is automatically, inherently, and continuously repurifying the solvent.
The net result is that the typical vapor degreaser, using Vertrel™ specialty fluids, consumes about 30 amps of power when cleaning and one-tenth of that energy in stand-by (night) mode; many of the smallest machines use standard household electrical connections! This contrasts with water-cleaning systems that often require 440-volt circuits and big power panels, and their power consumption is measured in hundreds and thousands of amps.
What work practices are recommended to optimize cleaning and minimize emissions while using Vertrel™ specialty fluids?
Please refer to the Material Safety Data Sheets and discuss disposal options with a knowledgeable Chemours representative or distributor prior to disposal or recovery. Good work practices play an important role in using a vapor degreaser effectively. Failure to define good work practices and failure to train technicians in those practices can reduce or eliminate the many benefits expected from selecting Vertrel™ specialty fluids and state-of-the-art equipment. Below are some useful and simple work practices that can play a major role in helping your cleaning system to operate at its peak, while eliminating solvent waste, improving the safety of your facility, and protecting the environment through reduced solvent losses.

System Location

Airflow across the top of a vapor degreaser is the single most common cause of extraordinary solvent losses. Do not ventilate your degreaser. Potentially, excess ventilation can cost you a lot of money through unexpected solvent losses. Similarly, keep degreasers/defluxers out of drafts as much as possible. Airflow turbulence across the top of the vapor blanket caused by drafts (velocity >40 ft/min) disturbs the vapor blanket and will increase your solvent losses. Look for drafts from adjacent windows, doors, room heaters, air conditioning, ventilators, or spray booths. Eliminating these drafts will greatly diminish the rate at which solvent vapor is emitted to the atmosphere. When excessive air movement is a problem with existing equipment, consider the installation of baffles or partitions on the windward side to divert the draft away from the cleaning unit. Do not use open-top equipment—that's old technology. Every machine today must have a tight, sliding closure. However, just in case the application requires open-top equipment, problems with drafts can be avoided or corrected by using hooded enclosures in conjunction with automated work-handling facilities. If you remain concerned about aromas and fumes, buy a set of inexpensive fluorocarbon monitors and track the exposure levels until a comfort level is achieved with this new technology.

Workload Size

The processing of workloads that exceed the cleaning system's design capabilities will expel solvent vapors from a degreaser/defluxer. This can be caused by one, or both, of two common effects:
  • A workload that is too large in physical size can displace vapor from the cleaning unit by the piston effect. This causes solvent to be ejected from the machine as the mass of cleaning materials descends into the cleaning vapors. To avoid losses by this mechanism, the area of the workload should not be greater than 50% of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the sump into which it is being introduced.
  • The introduction of a workload that is too cold and too massive will result in a collapse of the vapor blanket in a process called work shock. The infiltration of air into the cleaning unit will cause excess solvent losses until the vapor blanket is reestablished. If this condition is encountered on a regular basis, the equipment manufacturer should be consulted to determine if a hoist might ameliorate the problem, or if additional heating and condensing facilities can be incorporated into the cleaning unit. If not, the purchase of a new machine with larger work-handling capabilities should be considered.

Start-Up and Shutdown Procedures

To minimize solvent emissions during start-up, it is recommended that the following procedures be used: 1. Activate condenser cooling system and check to ensure that it is operating properly. 2. Activate, where provided, any auxiliary emission control equipment. 3. Check and adjust solvent levels in all compartments. 4. Activate heaters. 5. Wait until stable vapor blanket has been established before activating spray pumps or introducing work into the unit. To shut down the unit, use the following procedure: Stop work processing and clear the machine of all work. 1. Deactivate the heaters. 2. Activate sump cooling coils where provided. 3. Allow vapor blanket to collapse completely. 4. Deactivate condenser cooling system. 5. Close cover on open-top units.

Work Scheduling

The expulsion of air from a vapor degreaser/defluxer during start-up always results in some solvent vapor carryout. When work is being processed on an intermittent basis, emissions caused by frequent activation and deactivation of the degreaser/defluxer can be minimized by deferring cleaning until all of a day's production is accumulated for processing with only one start-up of the cleaning equipment. Also, a reduction in vapor emissions can be achieved by consolidating operations with several open-top units into a single, enclosed unit designed for continuous work transport.

Work Positioning

Work being cleaned in a degreaser/defluxer, whether contained in baskets, suspended from hooks, racks, or conveyed on a belt, always should be positioned in a manner that permits maximum drainage to minimize dragout losses of solvent. Retention of solvent in pockets and recesses can result in excessive solvent dragout. Try to position the products in such a manner as the solvent can drip from the parts back into the cleaning system. If this is not feasible, slow the extraction of the parts and consider using superheat.

Vapor Dwell Time

The workload should be retained in the vapor zone after the final cleaning step until its temperature equilibrates with that of the vapor zone and vapor condensation on the part stops. Work withdrawn earlier will emerge wet with solvent condensate. Insufficient dwell times are encountered most frequently in open-top units where work is manually moved into and out of the unit. Use of a programmed work transporter (e.g., an automated hoist) can help eliminate excessive dragout due to insufficient dwell time.

Spraying and Spray Wands

Spraying is not recommended. However, if required, spraying should be done deep within the vapor zone to avoid excessive disturbance of the vapor/air interface. Care also should be taken in spray-lance handling to avoid having the liquid solvent ricochet into the freeboard zone or out of the machine. Technicans need to be extremely careful when using spray lances or spray wands. Should they spray cold solvent into the vapor zone, the subsequent temperature change may collapse the vapor blanket. The use of warm solvent having a temperature no more than 3°C (5°F) below the solvent's normal boiling point will minimize the potential for vapor blanket collapse and the loss of solvent that accompanies vapor blanket reestablishment.

Solvent Handling

Here are some subtle but crucial tips for minimizing solvent loss during normal operation of the machine:
  • The addition of solvent to the degreaser/defluxer should be done with care to minimize disturbance of the vapor/air interface. Ideally, the solvent should be pumped into the degreaser through a liquid-submerged fill connection.
  • Makeup solvent should be added to a rinse compartment or, preferably, to the degreaser/defluxer's condensate collection tank. Cold solvent should not be added to a boiling sump; its introduction can stop boiling activity and collapse the vapor blanket.
  • The addition of solvent to an open-top degreaser/defluxer by pouring from drums or buckets should be avoided. The turbulence of such pouring destabilizes the vapor/air interface. The cold solvent could cause the vapor blanket to collapse.
  • Solvent handling in open-top containers should be avoided because it offers the opportunity for solvent evaporation and spillage.
  • Any drums containing solvent should be kept tightly sealed between transfer operations to prevent unnecessary evaporation losses. Drums should be stored with the bung end up to eliminate the possibility of incurring a major spillage of solvent through a leaky bung. Take great care when moving drums of solvent; automated systems (fork lifts, etc.) are recommended. Do not pressurize the drums of solvent in an attempt to expedite unloading.

Cleaning Equipment Considerations

There have been many advances in containment technology that have been employed by manufacturers who produce new and retrofitted equipment. It is recommended that the user consult their equipment supplier for suggestions about features that can reduce solvent consumption in their equipment. Features that are commonly available are as follows:
  • Higher freeboard ratios that exceed 1.5
  • A second set of low temperature (-29°C / -20°F) condenser coils to reduce vapor losses
  • Sliding covers optionally sealed and power operated to contain solvent vapors during a loss of power
  • Gaskets for water separators
  • Super-heated vapor zones that minimize losses from solvent dragout
  • Automated hoist systems that control vapor dwell times in the degreaser

System Maintenance and Leak Checking

In general, the boil sump on a busy machine will need to be cleaned quarterly. A typical boil-down cleaning process will take the machine off-line for about one day. The importance of a good maintenance program cannot be stressed too strongly. All solvent-containing equipment should be checked regularly for leaks from pump seals, valves, pipe joints, gasketed covers, sight glasses, and filter housings. The detection and repair of leaks at an early stage are essential elements of a good emission control program. From an industrial hygiene standpoint, prompt correction of leaks is needed to ensure worker safety. In addition to being a good industrial hygiene practice, monitoring the work area atmosphere for vapor concentration on a regular basis can be useful in detecting equipment malfunction and/or poor work practices.

Comparison with Competing Technologies

What about aqueous cleaning?
Aqueous cleaning systems need to be very large to accomplish the cleaning and drying processes. The equipment is much more expensive, consumes more energy, takes up more floor space, and takes longer to process parts than the typical Vertrel™ specialty fluids cleaning system. So, when looking at the total cost per part cleaned, the Vertrel™ specialty fluids system usually is less expensive to buy and operate. In general, aqueous cleaning systems are used most often for (a) cleaning parts that are not very complicated in form; (b) the cleaning requirement is not very stringent; or (c) the parts are very large or the production volume is extremely high. Aqueous cleaning usually is not successful for one or more of the following reasons:
  • Size & Spacing: Aqueous specialty fluids typically have difficulty getting into and cleaning in and around parts that are extremely small or have extremely small spaces. This can be somewhat ameliorated by additives in the water or high pressures, but these work-arounds cause problems of their own (residues, damage, higher costs).
  • Entrapment: Aqueous cleaners resist coming out of tiny spaces. Typical work-arounds include extra processing, such as baking the products in ovens to drive the water out of the traps.
  • Spots: Water often leaves unacceptable water spots. Common work-arounds include more additives to reduce the surface tension or enhance drying, more aggressive heating and powerful air knives. Less commonly, a final rinse in a solvent cleaner is often used.
  • Compatibility: Water cleaning often is not suitable because some components or products are sensitive to the high pressures of water cleaning, the heat of washing and/or drying, or the minor surface residues mentioned above. There are no common work-arounds that can solve compatibility problems.
  • Effectiveness: Many common types of contamination are not soluble in water, so no amount of water, pressure, and heat can remove them. Common work-arounds include more additives, higher pressures, and higher temperatures.
  • Environmental Problems: Water cleaners require a great deal of water and electricity, and produce a continuous discharge of contaminated water. The most common work-around is an expensive water treatment system to be installed alongside the cleaning system.
  • Costs: While water is usually cheaper than specialty fluids on a per-pound basis, the costs of buying, installing, and operating the machines can be far higher than a solvent-cleaning system.
What about HCFC-141b?
HCFC-141b is a great cleaner, and for a decade it has provided companies around the world a reasonable choice for vapor cleaning. It's a powerful cleaner, it forms azeotropes with other additives, it works great in vapor degreasers, it has relatively good toxicity ratings, and it is nonflammable. HCFC-141b is a Class II Ozone-Depleting Substance under the U.S. Clean Air Act. Because of this, the Montreal Protocol required that for most of the world the manufacture of HCFC-141b be phased out at the end of 2002. Vertrel™ specialty fluids are completely ozone-safe (zero ODP) and are not regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Vertrel™ specialty fluids are recommended as an excellent replacement for HCFC-141b in cleaning applications.
What about trichloroethylene?
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is generally used for coarse cleaning—the removal of heavy, thick oils and greases where precision and reliability of the part is not a high priority. But TCE is not suitable for precision cleaning applications. The main appeal for TCE is that they are far, far less expensive than more modern solvent choices. Traditional chlorinated specialty fluids such as TCE are very aggressive cleaners. This means they will be incompatible with most modern elastomers and plastics. They boil at a higher temperature (which means they use a lot more energy) and must be monitored daily for acid build-up (which means higher labor costs, more complex operations, and a system that is not as resilient to errors). There is also a pervasive and lingering concern over the toxicity of many of the chlorinated specialty fluids such as TCE, which has been classified as a suspected carcinogen for years.
What about nPB?
"nPB" is a chemical abbreviation for one member of the family of brominated specialty fluids, also known as normal-Propyl Bromide or n-Propyl Bromide. These specialty fluids are manufactured by many companies around the world and are an intriguing choice for many customers. nPB is a powerful degreaser with very familiar handling, similar to 1,1,1-trichloroethane that was popular 30 years ago. Specialty fluids based on nPB will boil at about 71°C/160°F so it can be used to remove waxy residues that other specialty fluids cannot touch. It is very aggressive so cleaning is fast and easy. nPB is a volatile organic compound (VOC). It has the potential to contribute to low-level smog and will be unsuitable for use in localities that have strict VOC rules, such as southern California. Interestingly, some people also have claimed nPB is an ozone-depleting solvent. Recent analyses suggest this is not true. The nPB molecule has an atmospheric life of only 11 to 17 days. With such a short atmospheric life, the molecule does not have enough time to migrate to the stratosphere to cause a problem. Toxicity is another issue for many people looking at nPB. While some nPB producers are claiming a 100 ppm threshold limit value is proper for nPB, ACGIH issued on January 30, 2005, a final report that set the TLV at 10 ppm. Because of this relatively low value, brominated specialty fluids only will be safe to use in tightly engineered cleaning machines that limit worker exposure to the solvent fumes, such as vapor degreaser systems designed under the NESHAP regulations. Another problem is that the aggressive nature of the cleaner can require complicated work-arounds when working with softer plastics and elastomers. nPB is not plastic-safe. In a poorly monitored system nPB can turn acidic. Chemically speaking, the solvent can hydrolyze with water to form acidic compounds. Sometimes the water comes from a drying process, but most often the water comes as a by-product of condensation on the cooling coils. In a busy machine, this can be a real problem. So users of nPB will have to monitor every machine on a weekly or even daily basis with an "acid acceptance test" to confirm that the solvent is still safe and effective. None of these issues are insurmountable; they just take time and add to the operating costs. nPB also has a distinct and pungent odor that is very pervasive but desensitizing. In a poorly maintained degreaser, the smell often is noticeable even far from the vapor degreaser. » Learn about the Chemours alternative designed to replace nPB
What about HCFC-225?
HCFC-225 is a moderately powerful cleaner. It works well in vapor degreasers. It is nonflammable and not as aggressive on plastics as HCFC-141b. A major problem with HCFC-225 is that it is an ozone-depleting substance. Specifically, it is a Class II Ozone-Depleting Substance under the U.S. Clean Air Act. Because of this, the Montreal Protocol requires that for most of the world the manufacture of HCFC-225 must be phased out at the end of 2015. » Learn about the Chemours alternative designed to replace HCFC-225

FAQs Vertrel™